Fishing vessels are not optimized to minimize ship resistance, they are optimized to maximize net tonnage. They tend to be beamy, high-powered, and expend a lot of energy overcoming drag, wave making and eddy resistance.
Put a dent in fuel waste by protecting your bottom line by protecting your hull. Employing an ultra-lightweight, dense, hard and ’self-polishing’ fouling release coating like Ionyx Marine & Hull can reduce the energy expended by 10% by addressing the two biggest threats to hull integrity and hull smoothness – without affecting net tonnage capacity.
Eliminate Physical & Biological Threats to Your Hull
Threat 1: Corrosion
Corrosion is a phenomenon common to seagoing vessels. Ships and boats are made of metal; the sea is a mass of salty, moving water. To counteract the corrosive effect of sea water on a metal hull, a hull coating must create a formidable barrier between metal and water. If the coating is damaged, corrosion on the hull surface begins, and it may be difficult and expensive to rectify. Even following repairs, common coating failures such as ‘micro-pitting’ can be present in the repaired area, which weakens and makes the coating susceptible to future damage or fouling.
Other macro physical symptoms of hull damage are plate laps, seams and butts, weld roughness, weld quality, and mechanical damage; however (aside from the obvious issue of coating condition) these
types of hull threats are not linked to the hull coating and would have to be covered under specific hull maintenance and repair programs that include but also go above and beyond ‘just’ the issue of hull coatings.
Threat 2: Fouling Biological threats wreak havoc on the integrity of the hull via attachment which severely impacts hydrodynamics. Even minor bio-fouling has a significant impact on the overall profitability of the vessel’s operations when considered across a fleet and a vessel’s 25-30 year service life.
Roughness caused by slime results in an increase in fuel consumption between 1 to 2%. Animal and plant biofoul impacts on fuel consumption greatly vary depending on the nature of the unwanted guest. Seaweed can cause a fuel consumption increase up to 10%, while shelled animals can easily cause a major increase of 40%.
In addition to fuel penalties in the short and long term, extensive biofouling eventually leads to hull corrosion, compounding an already significant expense. Loss of speed from moderate fouling can range between 10% to 18%, an additional cost factor in many seagoing business operations that depend on covering moderate distance every day.
The ‘Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship’, by Dr. Michael P. Schultz, published in 2011 by the United States Naval Academy, analyzed the overall economic impact of hull fouling on a mid-sized naval surface ship in which fuel, hull coatings, hull coating application and removal, and hull cleaning on operational costs.
Concisely, but precisely, Dr. Schultz conveyed the message: “Ship owners: paint now, or pay later”. The study examined 320 actual individual inspection reports from Jan. 1, 2004, to Dec. 31, 2006. It was found that resistance due to hull fouling amounted to US$56 million per year for the DDG-51 class destroyer fleet, and about US$1 billion over 15 years.
“The costs related to hull cleaning and painting are much lower than the fuel costs,” Schultz reported. Furthermore, Schultz said, a hull needn’t be heavily fouled to see the benefits. If a thin layer of slime were to build up in one month, and a thick layer of slime in two months, by the end of the two months, fuel consumption over the period would have increased by 10%.
The ecological costs to the fishing trade in terms of invasive species is even higher, since many invasive species, such as zebra mussels, are imported via attachment on hulls. Hull coatings have a vital part to play in limiting the further spread of invasive species. But the coatings must do no harm to the environment even while aiding in preventing the proliferation of invasive species.
For example, the State of Washington is banning the use of copper effective 2018, and California is set to do the same. Some ports and harbors have already implemented a “phase-out” of copper (a biocide used commonly in anti-fouling paints) including Shelter Island Yacht Basin in San Diego, and waters in and around Los Angeles and Long Beach.
Maintenance is Key
A key problem with foul-release and many biocidal anti-fouling systems is the fact that they are dependent on vessel movement though the water to remove fouling from the hull. This is because during periods of no movement, or very slow movement, the natural cleaning effect from the water’s circulation around the hull is minimized, allowing biofouling builds-up. Once the biofouling has built up, returning to usual speeds is not be enough to remove the biofouling, especially if the marine organisms have had a chance to develop into macroorganisms or establish a full-blown biofouling community on the hull. As a result, the ship will have to be cleaned more often, and more strenuously.
Coatings that flex with the vessel’s hull, combining hardness with flexibility provide good mechanical resistance and anticorrosive properties, but they require regular, labor intensive, hull cleaning. Deep cleaning even the best conventional coating exposes a serious deficiency: microchannels and voids in the film allow water to find its way below the coating surface, leading to delamination that leaves nothing between the salt water and metal but a thin layer of primer (unless the coating strips off the primer as it begins to filiform).
Hull cleaning methods for coatings generally means either dry dock (pressure wash, scraping, and/or white metal blasting) or underwater cleaning. Dry dock measures are more effective, extensive and expensive, ruling them out as a “regular cleaning” methods. Underwater cleaning usually requires divers with rotating brush tools to scrub the hull. Underwater cleaning is more economical, but scrubbing can damage softer coatings and release environmental hazards (anti-fouling biocides), while scrubbing heavily fouled hard coatings can open up an invasive species risk. Thankfully, there are alternatives.
Effective, Economical, Environmentally Safe Alternative
Due to very high costs, many high tech nanocoatings are marketed are beyond the reach of most fishing vessels. Thanks in part to an innovative, proprietary formulation process, Ionyxl Marine & Hull, a relatively new, technologically advanced nanocoating, offers an economical alternative that exceeds expectations (effective fouling prevention at no, low or high speed; easy application; elimination of common coating failures; corrosion protection; lightweight; low maintenance; dense coverage; abrasion resistant) and effectively protect working vessel’s “bottom” line.
Ionyx Marine & Hull Coat
Hardness.......................Mohs Scale: 7.5. hardness increases in the water over time Durability........................5+ years; does not react in salt water; water repellent Cost/Sq. Ft.....................Comparable to conventional coatings
Weight............................Less than half the weight of conventional coatings, less than the weight of water Coats required..............1-2 coats; thin coat results in higher coverage per gallon Maintenance................After months sitting static, hull wipes clean like whiteboard with white Scotch-Brite
Fouling release.............Effective in static water, low or high speed; nanoscale metrics prevent attachment Toxicity...........................Very low VOC, no heavy metals, no pesticides 100% state, local & EPA compliant Adhesion/bonding........Strongest bond in nature; coating + substrate create structure at molecular level Flexibility.........................Flexible; resistant to freeze/thaw conditions
UV resistance................High UV stability Corrosion resistance....Extremely high corrosion resistance Abrasion resistance......High abrasion resistance, less than 1mm filiform upon hard impact
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